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Fight against poverty


Against Poverty in the United States

Even the richest nations in the world like the United States does not escape the problem of poverty. This paper takes a critical look at poverty and policy Anti-poverty in the United States. In this article, I argued that poverty is caused by several factors. This document also covers the liberal perspective conservative to reduce poverty in America. The Conservatives have focused on individual factors such as wage differentials wide burst family, the factors of race and other reasons, while the Liberals have focused on the structural transformation of the U.S. economy to explain the persistence of poverty. Since 1960, federal and state governments have been responding with policies that address the problem with mixed results. In this article, I analyzed the policies and also recommended possible ways to cope with the rebellious nature of poverty.

According to Sen (1981), "the poor are those whose consumption of sub-standard standards, or whose incomes are below this line. The word "poverty" suggests destitution, unable to provide a family with nutritious food, clothing and reasonable shelter. More than thirty-six million Americans live below the official poverty line of U.S. (Blank, 2007). That means a family of three earning less than $ 16,000 for an individual earns $ 10.300 per year (Blank, 2007, p. 17). Millions more struggle each month to pay for basic necessities, or Short savings when they lose their jobs or face health emergencies. Job cuts, high unemployment, foreclosures and products food and gas prices continue to stimulate the formulation of policies to improve the condition of the poor.

Poverty is closely associated misery and suffering. The lost potential of children in poor households and the low productivity and earnings of poor adults are all associated with poor health, increased crime and broken neighborhoods. Child poverty generally leads to health care in poor neighborhoods and crime high. Persistent childhood poverty is estimated to cost $ 500 billion U.S. dollars annually, or about 4% of gross Gross national Gross Domestic Product (Blank, 2007, p.1).

One in eight Americans lives of poverty and poverty in the United States is much higher than in many developed countries (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p1). Inequality has a record. The richest 1 percent of Americans in 2005 held the largest share of national revenues (19%) since 1929 (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p. 2). At the same time the poorest 20% of Americans held only 3.4% income of the nation (Rebecca Blank, 2007, p.2).

Colorado, despite being surrounded by the magnificent Rocky Mountains and knows a cool climate mountain has many homeless. The researchers found that a growing number of single parent households, a shortage of jobs for workers Low wages and low rates of high school graduates have contributed to the growth of poverty in Colorado. The poverty rate increased from Colorado 9.2% in 2000-2001 to 10.6% in 2005-2006 while the poverty rate for the United States increased 11.5% in 2000-2001 to 12.5% in 2005-2006 (Center for Law and Policy, 2006, p.1). Most of these poor unfortunate people suffer from mental health problems.

Causes of Poverty

Policy analysts are trying to explore many perceived direct and indirect causes of poverty in the United States to formulate effective policies to combat against poverty. The work of scholars such as Corley (2003), Sowell (2004), Iceland (2006), Jencks (1992), James Tobin (1993) and others have shown the irreducible nature of poverty is not the result of a single factor, but the interaction of a variety of causes. The distribution of family and other social causes as well as structural changes in the economy, have all contributed to the failure of society to eradicate poverty despite ardent efforts by political analysts.

Individual explanation of poverty primarily stresses the factors motivational and attitudinal factors or human capital. Thus, lack of motivation among the needy causes of poverty. generous social programs, sometimes affect the mood of the beneficiaries and they prefer to stay home and enjoy the benefits rather than working outside. Murray (1984) argues that people prefer to stay on welfare because of lack of motivation to get out of programs of public welfare.

Formulation and the proliferation of policies to fight against poverty has been a major concern of the Government United States since 1960. The level of education is necessary to obtain gainful employment. Elementary school education, and lack of adequate skills and motivation of the poor out of the situation is the major cause of poverty. People are well equipped with skills high technical employees get jobs so that people who are school dropouts get low wages on an hourly basis. During the 1960s when the former president United States of Lyndon Johnson began to implement the U.S. "war on poverty", he placed great emphasis on education (Jencks, 1992). Lyndon Johnson administration, even invested in programs like the head of the training start and upgrade the skills the poor and to prevent future generations to work in low paid jobs. Scholars such as Sowell (2004) and Corley (2003) stressed factors at the individual level that the central causes of poverty. They argue that the compensation is based on a person's educational qualification and skills. Sowell (2004) argues that the lack of appropriate skills has affected the ability of many poor out of poverty. He further contends that there was an increase in poverty rates for unskilled Americans, who have lost jobs to Asian immigrants. Corley (2003) also supports the above argument and regarding the lack of education "as one source of entrenched poverty. Low Quality of Education poorly funded inner-city school results in a few skills leading to jobs with low wages and other miseries associated with it such as the ability to pay less for housing, food, clothing, medical care, poor neighborhoods, funding problems for schools, and an increased risk of severe disease (Corley, 2003).

Many researchers have argued that structural changes are the main reason the persistence of poverty in the United States. Structuralists focus on issues such as unemployment, discrimination in education, institutional racism and economic change to explain the causes of poverty. Researchers say that the inability to provide decent jobs to pay for certain American families and the ineffectiveness of American public policy to reduce poverty are mainly the result of structural problems and processes. Poverty is rooted in the structure of American society. Rank, 2004 supports the above view and argues that the lack of human capital tends to place individuals in a vulnerable state when the events and crises occur. The impact of these events as the loss of a employment, family breakdown and health problems often result in poverty. These unhappy people unable to manage these situations come often pay more. The researchers also argue that the acquisition of human capital is strongly influenced by the impact of social class on the process (Rank, 2004). Apart from poor family, race and sex also play a role in the acquisition of human capital (Mark Robert Rank, 2004).

Globalisation, the expansion of credit markets leading to greater debt and seizures led to the recession in 2008, all point to the growth of poverty. Iceland (2006) focused primarily on economic factors and argues that poverty is also a product of deindustrialization. Since the movements of the United States from a manufacturing, industrial society to a service-oriented, high-tech society, many blue-collar jobs that required little education but well paid are lost or outsourced. Rural areas, such as the Appalachians, suffer loss of jobs in the mines, and cities such as Detroit lost many manufacturing jobs in the factory automation or abroad. Some people are unable to keep the job or to work in neighborhoods are left without jobs or tax base to support necessary social functions, like schools, public transport, police, and so on. Others simply can not find a job because the transition to an economy based on services, in economic terms these people are structurally unemployed because of the changing skills necessary. Tobin (1993) supports the view above and focuses on the disappearance of jobs in the 1900s as the main reason for countries not eradicating poverty. Recent data shows that employment the U.S. housing crisis and the crisis in credit markets in America the threat of increasing levels of poverty. Isidore (2008) mentions that job losses are widespread, with the battered construction sector losing 51,000 jobs and manufacturing employment fell by 48,000 in the year 2008. retail employment fell by 12,000 jobs, businesses and professional services employers reduce its workforce by 35,000. The unemployment rate jumped to 6.1% in September from 4.9% in January (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008).

Kelso (1994), shows that over the last forty years, there has been a major change in American companies first west and then south. Part of this change is attributable to the increase of the cold war and the government's decision to expand U.S. military power (Kelso, 1994). He argues that, as America chose to invest more in defense and aerospace industry, cities as Seattle and Los Angeles on the west coast began dramatically while the growth of high technology and information technology based led to the increasing wealth of California and the Bay of San Francisco. Later, with the expansion of inter-state highway system and the growth of employment, markets have been created in the south.

Iceland (2006) also argues that, although the services sector of the economy has created millions of jobs, but once again polarized distribution of earnings by level of education between better-paying jobs poor paying jobs. He supports a Marxist analysis of class struggle and exploitation, and focuses on owners Business supports the hiring of cheap labor to maximize profits. This also explains the influx of labor Cheap United States from Mexico and other countries. Improved access to credit has put cars, computers, credit cards, and even houses to reach of many more of the working poor. But this consolidation of the market for low-income consumers has a dark side. Roubini notes that "Access Credit should be to help people with low income, but instead become an opportunity for promoting social and economic, it becomes a trap debt for many trying to move up (Grow and Epstein, 2007).

Despite public assistance and initiatives to wide by both the federal and state, poverty still exists. careful analysis of the situation and formulate policies effective are needed to solve the problem of poverty in the United States. Ranking among scholars as (2004), Blank (2007) and others showed that the U.S. government spends less money sent to the poverty of any industrialized country. Thus, a major structural failure is located at the political level (Rank, 2004). Most European countries offer a wide range of insurance programs, unemployment assistance, and extensive coverage Universal Health with substantial support for child care (Rank, 2004). These social programs are much more generous than the U.S. (Rank, 2004). Then the low-income families in the United States to work more than those in other countries, they are not yet able to catch up government support low income compared to their European counterparts (Blank, 2007, 141-142).

The gross disparities between the poor in the U.S. along racial lines has led many researchers to speculate that institutional racism is largely responsible for poverty in the United States. Discrimination race in employment and education contribute to the growth of poverty. Some researchers such as Massey and Denton (1993) to interpret statistics in terms of institutional racism, while others such as Kelso (1994) to interpret the statistics as evidence of shortcomings and the suffering of blacks. Despite efforts to eliminate racism, slavery and Jim Crow segregation, Massey and Denton (1993) argue that racial segregation still exists and that the fundamental cause of poverty among African-Americans segregation. They argue that segregation has created and perpetuated a black underclass by limiting employment opportunities and education. Massey and Denton (1993) have shown that blacks have been presented houses in racially mixed areas or areas adjacent to areas with predominantly black.

In addition, changing patterns of family formation are more pronounced among ethnic and racial groups. Family structures are also one of the causes of poverty in the United States. There is a wide gap between equality of wages. In 2004, the median income of male workers was $ 40,798 FTYR, compared with $ 31,223 for women FTYR (Denavit-Walt et al, 2005), Pearce (1978) argues that poverty 'is fast becoming a female problem. Iceland (2006) supports this statement and showed that 2000, the poverty rate among women (12.5%) was 26% higher than the poverty rate among men (9.9%) (Iceland, 2006). According to Iceland women have fewer economic resources than men and are more likely to be single parents. It also leads to the greater likelihood that single, divorced or widowed women are poorer than their male counterparts because of income less social security or retirement income others in higher female life expectancy. lower wages for women, lower retirement benefits and the increasing number of mothers Singles have led some commentators to speak of the "feminization of poverty."

Federal policies

After the Second World War in 1963, job creation by the policies of President John F. Kennedy of the tax could not remove the problem poverty. Poverty is still recognized as a national problem. President Lyndon B. Johnson 's war against poverty have led to a multitude of programs that included Medicare, Medicaid, food stamps, Aid to Families with Dependent Children, and others. These rights may be consumed half the federal budget and could not fight against poverty. The U.S. economy has been devastated by the recession of 1979-83 when the United Statess manufacturing infrastructure has been shattered by the Federal Reserve rate of interest skyrocketing unemployment causing a surge in sixty-five per cent in four years (Cook, 2007). In the late 1980s, the economy was in another recession, leading to the election of Bill Clinton who in 1992 replaced the incumbent George HW Bush. The investment boom of the 1990s was fueled by foreign capital are recruited by the Treasury policies strong dollar. Jobs have been created as the bubble expanded, trade barriers decreased, and utility economic giants like Enron took off. NAFTA was enacted to promote free trade, well-being at work reduced the low-income women in the labor market, and the Earned Income Tax Credit has been extended. The evening ended when the stock market collapsed in December 2000 and millions of people lost their retirement savings and other investments. Recession returned even George W. Bush was declared president of the Supreme Court of the United States in December 2000. The economic crisis has worsened after September 11, 2001 attacks where 1.4 trillion dollars of wealth have disappeared during the worst five trading days since the Great Depression (Cook, 2007). Cook (2007) argues that today, poverty is becoming a national disaster. Cook (2007) asserts that from 2002 to 2006, the economy has been proposed by the housing bubble, with many people on low incomes to enter the houses of their own thanks to the proliferation of loan sub-prime mortgages. With the financial difficulties of the end of 2008, many U.S. citizens find themselves with inflated property prices and no means to pay.

Policy initiatives of the 1960s and the declaration of "unconditional war against poverty" by the former President Lyndon Johnson scored a discrete change in the federal government will intervene in order to improve the economic situation poor Americans. Despite billions of dollars spent on programs like CETA (Training Act Comprehensive Employment), The development and Workforce Training Act preschool and primary and secondary law, the government's efforts to address the root causes of poverty have had minimal success. During this period, the implementation of the program of Social Security insured retirement almost all workers Retirement against the risk of outliving their savings. The Social Security Act of 1935 sought to protect the incomes of those who were not working because age or a poor economy by establishing a federal unemployment insurance, retirement benefits, and assistance women. In early 1964, the two most pressing priorities of the anti-poverty agenda of President Johnson involved passing tax cuts massive boost to the economy and the organization of a working group to shape the "war on poverty". Opportunity Economic Act (EOA) signed by Johnson has created a long list of programs to help individuals to develop skills, political power, Location and suitability. But this bill anti-poverty oversaw other programs such as Community Action, Job Corps, VISTA Program Head Start (1965), legal services (1965) which were not under it. Although important programs like food stamps, Medicare for the elderly, Medicaid applied to skilled poor residents, elementary and secondary education for poor pupils Act shadow the EOA. The Higher Education Act eased the financial burden of millions of students college. The Civil Rights Act opened up new spaces on the U.S. market, while the Voting Rights Act does the same for the political market. The Fair Housing Act established an important base of the law against discrimination in the housing. Therefore, the EOA slowly lost its importance. Again, Murray (1984) argues that social benefits have reached such heights so as to make living in poverty a viable option for the poor. Even Burton (1992) supported the point of view the above and argues that the programs have been more because of poverty than to reduce it.

When Nixon took office, he tried to tackle poverty more directly than focusing on social programs. . Although President Nixon expressed his dislike for much of the war against poverty, his administration has responded to public pressure by maintaining most programs and expanding the welfare state through the liberalization of the food stamp program, the indexing of Social Security to inflation, and the passage of a supplementary security income (SSI) for disabled Americans (Rank, 2004). The Nixon administration also approved a new "federalism" in which the federal government moved more authority over social enterprises to the state and local communities. His plan to implement the "Family Assistance Plan (FAP) is comprised of various provisions relating to income, working arrangements, and training arrangements for those below the poverty line (Rank, 2004). He failed to pass the Senate just as the programs to better jobs and Income ", initiated by President Carter in the following years. Welfare reforms continued as a center of debate over federal policies, even after the legislative defeat of FAP. Although negative cash income "tax" (NIT) for all poor people are never past, Food Stamp program provided a national food stamp benefits that vary by family size, regardless of their state of residence or lifestyles or marital status. The number of AFDC recipients increased from about 6 to 11 million and the number of beneficiaries food stamps, about one million to 19 million during the Nixon administration (Danziger, 1999, p. 8). Danziger (1999) also argues that the money that the increase and in-kind benefits became available to a larger percentage of poor, disincentives to work and fiscal costs of social programs have been increasingly challenged. The public and policymakers have come to view aid recipients increased social as evidence that the programs were subsidizing dependency and idleness encouraging.

Despite the failure adopt a program of guaranteed income, both the number of beneficiaries and the amount of money spent on welfare programs increased significantly during the 1970s (Rank, 2004). Rank (2004) gave an overview of the policies of Reagan and noted that Reagan said the action individual unhampered by government interference, rejected social engineering of the 1960s and also supported federalism, that is, the power to return to the States rather than centralized at the federal government. Reagan tried to resolve the problem and set the tone for social reform that took place in 1990 during the administration of his successor. The Reagan administration believed eligibility for welfare benefits had increased so much that many people who were not really in need benefits "received. The Reagan administration cons simultaneous reception of wages and welfare benefits. Instead, it proposed the well-being become a safety net, providing cash assistance only for those who can not secure jobs.

The Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), enacted in 1975, offers families working poor with a refundable tax credit (ie, the family receives a payment from the Internal Revenue Service if the credit due exceeds tax due). Thus, the EITC raises the effective wage of low-income families, is available in both two-parent families, and do not need to apply for welfare. The maximum EITC for a poor household was $ 400 in 1975 and rose to $ 550 by 1986 (Danziger, 1999, P. 14). The Tax Reform Act of 1986 has increased the EITC so that by 1990, a low-income working parent received a maximum credit of $ 953 (Danziger, 1999, p. 14). The number of families receiving loans increased by between 5 and 7.5 million families per year between 1975 and 1986 to over 11 million by 1988 (Danziger, 1999, p. 14). Danziger, 1999 argues that, as the expansion of the EITC supplements low wages, it became easier for policymakers to focus on the reform of welfare policies that could place the recipients in all jobs, rather than train them for "good jobs". Thus, he argues that if the beneficiary does not take a job working at low wages, a significant EITC could make work pay as much as a higher-wage jobs would pay in the absence of an EITC.

Family Support Act (FSA) of 1988 broadened the scope of the AFDC for two-parent families, established child care and transitional Medicaid for recipients to leave well-being at work, and states added funds needed to establish programs to move more recipients of aid employment. When assistance has surged in the late 1980s and early 1990s, from 11 to about 14 million beneficiaries, dissatisfaction welfare increased again (Danziger, 1999).

President Nixon identified the two main economic problems, inflation and unemployment, which justifies the need for economic recovery for the American worker. Reagan emphasized the desperation caused by unemployment combined with high inflation. Reagan's rhetorical construction of social assistance and social protection system aimed to reduce anxiety among Americans caused by rising taxes, inflation and the constant fear of losing their employment. To end this victimization, Reagan proposed an economic stimulus plan (Rank, 2004). In addition to reducing government spending, particularly spending for social programs, Reagan also proposed having state governments take control of aid to families with children dependent (AFDC) program and food stamps in exchange for federal control of Medicaid. Although this proposal failed to reach the floor of Congress, his presentation of the proposal to exchange AFDC and food stamp program with Medicaid because of poverty a concern Local (Mark Robert Rank, 2004).

Liberals and conservatives continue to disagree on other goals of welfare programs at work. Liberals thought reform welfare should increase opportunities for welfare mothers to receive training and work experience which would help raise the living standards of their families by working more and higher wages. Conservatives said the demands of work, mothers obligations to the well-being in exchange for government support or not the income of their families has increased (Mead, 1992).

Years the latest efforts by President Clinton also highlighted empowerment as a way to help welfare recipients and to accumulate more savings without penalty and expanding the tax credit on income (Blank, 2007). Towards the mid- 1990, the focus of past policy of fight against poverty to reducing welfare dependency. President Clinton signed personal responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) ended the right to cash assistance and has radically changed the nature of the social safety net. The law created the Temporary Assistance to Needy Families program (TANF). TANF began on July 1, 1997, provides assistance cash to needy American families with dependent children in the United States Department of Health and Human Services (The Center for American Progress Task Force on Poverty, 2007). Danziger, 1999 argues that the state E ach can now decide which families to help in subject only to a requirement that they receive "a fair and equitable." By creating a program of block grants, the PRWORA States granted the opportunity to design their own systems, as long as states meet a basic set of federal requirements. Bill focusing on ending welfare as a program right, places a lifetime limit of five years on benefits paid by federal funds, and also aims to encourage two-parent families and discouraging births outside marriage. In granting wider latitude for States design their own programs, some States decided to impose additional requirements on recipients. Although the law imposed a time limit for benefits financed federal funds not more than 2 years consecutively and no more than 5 years over a lifetime, some states have adopted more stringent limits. All States, however, have allowed exceptions with the intent of not punishing children because their parents have exceeded the time limit. Federal requirements ensured a certain uniformity among states, but the block grant approach has led individual states to distribute federal money in different ways. Some states actively encourage more education, others use the money to help finance private assist job seekers. PRWORA offers no opportunity to work in exchange for welfare benefits when the beneficiary reaches the lifetime limit of 60 months of cash assistance by the federal government. But reform has certain limitations. States can not use federal funds block grants to provide more than a cumulative total lifespan of 60 months of cash assistance to a recipient of social assistance, low matter how it might be willing to work for their benefits, and they have the opportunity to set shorter time limits. States may grant exceptions to the limits of life and continue to use federal funds for a maximum of 20 per cent of the workload. The magnitude of expectations of work has also been increased. single-parent recipients without children under the age of less than one year are expected to work at least 30 hours per week by the year 2002 to maintain eligibility for cash assistance (Danziger, 1999, p 20). States may require participation in work or work-related activities regardless of the age of youngest child. As PRWORA emerged from research that seeks to reduce poverty and dependence on welfare (Danziger, 1999). In 1990, following Clinton's call to "end welfare as we know, politicians' intensified their demands for work and beneficiaries of government bonds to be reduced and funds to serve them (Danziger, 1999).

When Bush took office in 2001, the United States suffer from a national surplus, unemployment and poverty had been on the decline for years, and the economy was booming. Today, almost six years later, poverty is increase the coverage of health care is declining, and the country is facing the biggest national deficit in history. Families with low middle class are slowly slipping below the line and the poor are becoming poorer. Most of these families are headed by women.

President Bush has extended the TANF. There was a political initiative in general economic recovery of the Bush administration, but nothing targeting Americans Low income was enacted. President Bush signed the economic stimulus package (HR 5140) into law with the hope that it will give new impetus if necessary to the economy lagging. The package includes tax rebates for individuals, tax breaks for businesses, and increased Temporary Administration Federal Housing loans from $ 417,000 to $ 729,750 (compared to the White House, 2008). More than 130 million people are expected to get tax rebates ranging from $ 300 to $ 1,200 per household for those earning $ 75,000 or less and couples earning up $ 150,000 (compared to the White House, 2008). Although the stimulus package will provide financial assistance for millions of people, it fails to target those who need it, because it does not include an extension of unemployment benefits, energy assistance, Food Stamp benefits, or tax relief to states for Medicaid.

From the foregoing analysis, the question arises whether the poor are responsible their own condition. The above analysis implies that the recipients become dependent and lethargic because of the measures of well-being huge. Scholars such as Murray (1984) and Kilty and Segal (2006) have focused on individual factors. They argue that measures of well-being and absence of mind and motivation of helping indigent poverty. Danziger, 1999 states that during the Nixon era increase in measures of welfare encouraged idleness. Kilty and Segal, 2006 also argues that the poor can escape in a state of self-sufficiency by learning dependency work attitude and adequate skills. Kilty and Segal, 2006 argue the importance of reform of the welfare approach and a "tough love" would eventually help the poor by making them aware of their condition and forcing them to take their own responsibility. Bill Clinton's emphasis on "personal responsibility" and measures to "end welfare as we know in 1992 all holders of the above argument.

Due to the implementation of TANF, the number of people on welfare has declined. Thus, funds are accumulated. In 1996, the number of beneficiaries was ADFC 12,644,076, while in 2001 the number of TANF recipients was 5.91, 811 and the poverty rate has also reduced from 13.7 to 11.3 (Kilty and Segal, 2006) and while in 2008 it is 1,628,422 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services). The share of single mothers on welfare (on the based caseload of Directors has divided by the number of the population) has increased 38 percent in 1969 to 48 per cent in 1980 but dropped to 30 per cent in 1998 (Kilty and Segal, 2006). These changes in the number of cases are very widespread, with each state in the country with a declining number of important cases. This decline has been widely welcomed by politicians as an indication that policies aimed at reducing dependence on public assistance and move less skilled adults in the labor market have been extremely effective (Blank, 2007). But however Blank argues that the welfare cuts affect not the rate of poverty. The poverty rate in 2007 was 12.5 percent, up slightly from the level of 12.3 percent in 2006. The poverty rate has increased for four years straight from 2000-2004. In 2007, the poverty rate was 1.2 percentage points higher than it was in 2000 (Blank, 2007).

States initiatives welfare

Most states took an important decision on reform, and this decision was sensible in light of state goals and experience. A few states have not seriously make reform policy. New York has been so deeply divided that it has not taken seriously the decisions AFDC (Mead, 2002). Alabama and Missouri were pushed into reform by federal action and seemed to have little political protection of their own (Mead, 2002). In several other Southern states (Florida, North Carolina), policy seems to be relaxed and personalized with the governor or the legislature provides reform plans, apparently, little research or evidence behind them (Mead, 2002). policy of Texas was inconsistent for the state claims continue work early, but based its policy on an experimental program focused far more on education and training (Mead, 2002). States have always insisted on reform. But sometimes reduced the contributions to these plans after a total failure of the program. Mead (2002) argues that in Florida and Georgia, however, the bureaucracy has been dragged through the reform, but has shown little commitment to it. In Arizona and California, the agency or large towns has been very committed to an approach oriented skills to the well-being and resisted the move to work first. In Texas, the reform Name is a lower priority to administrators of programs for the reconstruction of non-employment welfare and other initiatives. In Colorado and New Jersey, local agencies had a history of defiance of the state government, which prevented them from fully endorsing reforms decided in capital. Mead (2002) argues that, despite the establishment of the Employment Service (ES), an employment agency funded by the federal placement and training programs under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA), poverty rate has not improved. After welfare programs national work were first enacted in 1967, the ES engaged in practices of well-being. But because the routine pointed to ES service for job seekers who have come voluntarily, it generally performed poorly with clients welfare (Mead, 2002). These applicants Job came to her on a compulsory basis, as a condition of receiving assistance. To achieve them, the agency had to respect the work, but also support employment with special services. The ES often these two antagonistic roles (Mead, 2002). The ES has been noted on the role of the entrepreneur well-being and later in 1988, the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) has merged the ES JTPA, and other programs not working well-being. But this merger also created confusion. The problems are the lack of clear procedures to refer clients to WIA, to serve there, or to report results on welfare. States that lack of coordination and lack of management information systems (GIS) were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia, Florida, Georgia and Tennessee.

public sector reform in Colorado has been associated a decline in the poverty rate. At the end of 2000, the unemployment rate in Colorado fell 2.6 percent, personal income showed gains stable, if the welfare state has declined dramatically, and state legislators grappling with an estimated $ 833 million Excess revenue (Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute, 2001). But despite all the facts above poverty persists as expenses such as child care, out of pocket medical expenses and geographical differences in housing costs have increased. The increases occurred even after adjusting for account of income support such as tax relief, food stamps and school lunch programs, housing subsidies and assistance for energy. A 2001 report by the Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute determined that a single parent with two young children living in the county of Denver would need to earn an annual salary of about $ 39,924 to meet their basic needs such as housing, food, health care, child care and transportation, without public or private assistance. Although child poverty rate is high in Colorado. Approximately 180,000 children, 15.7 percent of total state Life has been in poverty in Colorado in 2006, an increase of 73 percent since 2000 (Frosch, 2008). The state of Colorado purchases childcare for income eligible families by the Child Care Assistance Colorado Program (CCCAP). The state allows counties to set the purchase price child care and make payments to suppliers of a combination of fees from parents and federal, state and county funds. But Colorado Office of Resource and Referral Services (CORRA) in a 2001 study that the payment of county average fell below 75 percent of the market value (Colorado Fiscal Policy Institute, 2001, p. 9). In counties forced result providers subsidize the cost of service to low income, many of which were simply not prepared to do when limited slots could be filled with families who could afford to pay the full rate. Other vendors who have chosen not to simply refuse service to families CCCAP saved money by limiting the number of children on CCCAP they would accept, cutting programs, or reduce the wages of workers. All these actions are limited availability and quality of care sacrificed Low-income children. Poverty still exists in Colorado despite initiatives to alleviate poverty that too many lives Working Families incomes below the poverty line and more families earning just too low to meet their basic needs. The government has begun Colorado Enjoy the town caucus in 2007 to develop a program in 2009, focusing on education K-12 and committed to making technology laboratory and on the market by investing $ 4.5 million in the bioscience industry, the Fund's support for clean energy to reduce costs high utility of the family, the creation of the Incentive Program of the Colorado Solar with 2 million to provide rebates for photovoltaic and solar thermal systems to help the terminally join the new energy economy and reduce their utility bills (State Rep. Andy Kerr, 2008). The poor can not pay the full cost of heating and lighting their homes. Governments and social service agencies have long helped low-income taxpayers to pay their bills through programs such as Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), charitable Funds fuel billing leveled, discounts, home weatherization, energy efficiency, education, energy use and debt management. If all Americans live in homes weatherized and energy efficient and have the income to pay their share of utility bills, all other taxpayers would save nearly $ 6 billion costs of poverty, including fuel assistance, lifeline and other assistance rates, weatherization and efficiency costs, the costs of late payment and disconnection of service (Oppenheim and MacGregor, 2007).


From the foregoing analysis, it is clear that poverty is still widespread because of the economic system, the stratification and social welfare measures. According to Iceland (2003) on the one hand, economic growth and technological changes contribute to the increase wages and living standards overall. Economic growth is accompanied by levels of education than improves the condition of people. On the other hand, the market economy often has the opposite effect on levels of poverty (Iceland, 2003). To maximize profits, Business usually aim to pay salaries to workers with low that increase inequality and poverty. Again the policy may increase or decrease the harmful effects of inequality. The combination of factors highlighted by two liberals and conservatives, poverty is multidimensional. I believe that serious national efforts against poverty. Employment opportunities for all, so that workers and their families can escape poverty, meet basic needs and saving for the future. Crescent hourly wage would certainly improve the condition of these people. Smaller proportion of low-wage workers unemployed, the unemployment insurance benefits. I believe that states (with federal help) should reform eligibility "monetary rules that prevent low-wage workers, broaden eligibility for Part-time workers and workers who have lost their jobs because of compelling family circumstances. Workers should use this period of unemployment and money received from the unemployment insurance system and improve their skills and qualifications. Thus, adults should have the opportunity throughout their lives to connect to work, get more education, and live in a good neighborhood and move up in the labor market.

using child care for low-income families and an emphasis on education K 12 would certainly reduce the poverty rate United States. Low-income youth barely in college than their counterparts with higher incomes. Pell Grants play a crucial role for students low income. Streamlining the application process Pell Grant, and encouraging institutions to do more to raise graduation rates of students certainly improve the situation. Expansion of programs that Pell Grants would make higher education accessible to residents of each state. States, at the same time should also develop strategies to make postsecondary education affordable for all residents. Credit expansion to knowledge would encourage savings for education, homeownership, and retirement. Consequently, all Americans have assets that would enable them to withstand periods of volatility and the resources that may be essential to upward economic mobility. Out knowledge of credit, expansion of holders of a tax credit on income would increase incomes and helps families build assets. Thus, it should be an opportunity for all, so that children grow up in conditions that maximize their chances of success.









Rebecca Blank (2007); poverty to prosperity; Center for the American task force on poverty; – similar Pages

Colorado Statewide Homeless Count (2007), School of Public Affairs, University of Colorado, – Similar pages

Richard Cook (2007), Poverty in America – 61k – Cached – Similar pages

Mary Ann Corley (2003), poverty, racism and Literacy, ERIC Center on Adult Career and Vocational Training

Sheldon Danziger (1999), Reforming Health Protection policy from Nixon to Clinton, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

De Navas-Walt, et al. "Income, Poverty and Health Insurance in the United States: 2005.

Diana Pearce Pearce (1978) "The Feminization of Poverty: Women, Work and Well-being, "Journal of Urban and social change.

John Iceland (2006), poverty in America, the University of California Press

Chris Isidore (2008), the bomb Mortgage trillion dollars /? postversion = 2008042103 – 66k –

James Tobin (1993); poverty in terms of macroeconomic trends, cycles and policies; Cowles Foundation discussion paper.


OPW Wood Deck Restoration in Metro Detroit


Carpet Cleaning Forms

August 2, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

carpet cleaning forms
Where can I find Carpet Cleaning systems, spray and wipe to remove oil or grease and food stains?

This was announced on a chain of shops and removed all kinds of stains on carpets and furniture. the question may come from the U.S.

There is a product called "Spot Shot" which comes in a spray can, but it takes a little more effort a wipe-off. We animals company and it works very well on their "mistakes". Sam's Club is a seller.

Carpet Protection Really Works – Portland Carpet Cleaning


Home Cleaning Services Miami

by stain remover expert No Comments »

home cleaning services miami
Would a drag queen cleaning service is good for New York?

They have one in Miami when guys dress in drag and go around people at home and clean house. Please tell me why or why not it would work.

Well here's the thing. The people of New York whole would embrace it. They say it was great NYC already loves drag queens she then … more the merrier, but in New York it's a bit difficult for this to play in reality and here's why: You have roughly only 2 classes of people living in New York. The uber rich think that drag queens have to clean their 7.5 million 5th Ave apt. Campy far and maybe even a neighbor should unexpected embarrassing down. Then there is the "everybody class. "Who tend to be younger, living with roommates sometimes several kinds of people because NYC is so expensive d * mn, so if they can give a person clean, it is generally cheaper than undocumented worker because A-they can not afford much more and they understand B how difficult it is for someone to survive in New York and are more than happy to "help" someone by offering them work. The other the daily average people looking people are middle class who go to Manhattan, either by carpooling and more often by train, and they live in suburbs or drag queens are much less frequent because they are in Manhattan. In addition, the "specificity" of all drag queen as wife Room "is based on that you can sit and watch as drag queen clean your house or apartment. Not many people are at home when the maid comes from the fact that some people simply prefer to do while at work if it actually could be a drag queen, a guy wearing a costume polar bear, or a Taiwanese worker 7 years which makes the cleaning of their apartment and they would never know.

Miami House Cleaning Services / Limpieza De Casas


Advance Uk Cleaning Services

July 29, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

advance uk cleaning services

What can we do to the environment clean and healthy

A clean and healthy is most important for our healthy and happy life properly. The beautiful world we live in now is badly affected by pollution. Because hygienic environment increases the risk of many diseases such as water worn, diseases induced by dust, fungal infections, etc. Today, people are facing many environmental problems in daily life.
Soil pollution is a global problem and affected the lives of millions of people and caused several deaths and health problems. contains polluted land garbage and waste along with the significant soil itself be polluted. The earth is polluted by chemicals in pesticides and herbicides used for agricultural waste and devastation in urban areas such as roads, parks and streets.

In everyday life, the person breathes average 20,000 liters of air in everyday life. Full day that we breathe, we risk inhaling dangerous chemicals that have found their place in the air. Air pollution includes all contaminants in the atmosphere can be either in the form of gases or particles. Today, we can find air pollution outdoors and indoors. Air pollution can have serious consequences for our health and also serious impact on natural BioNetwork. Volcanic eruptions, forest fires, wind erosion, pollen dispersal, evaporation of organic compounds, etc. and natural radioactivity are the natural causes of air pollution.

In many regions around the word, the smog has reached an extraordinary level. Smog causes a dark fog atmosphere occur in cities. It reduces visibility and creates a fog in region. Auto, fire, waste treatment, production of oil, industrial solvents, paints and coatings are important producers of smog. In particular, diesel cars and service stations that allow filtered gas contributes significantly to the smog problem.
The problem of water pollution is affecting all countries around the world and especially true because water is able to transport of pollution from a place to another. The main cause of water pollution is sewage sludge, waste, and even toxic pollutants are discharged water. Many animals die from polluted water such as fish, birds, dolphins, etc. People can get a disease like hepatitis by Seafood consumption has been poisoned.

Environmental Services Group Ltd for your help:

Environmental Services Group Ltd. is one of the UK's largest providers of complete solutions based on trust and respect for the environment. Let's promote the reduction ESGL, reprocessing and recycling, and support energy recovery both as a means to reduce use of fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Our sole purpose is to promote the use of alternative on the most effective technique for waste treatment and industrial solutions advanced. Because we want to provide a safe and supportive environment for our employees, the environment, our customers and local communities in which we operate. ESGL committed to providing cost-effective, high quality and relevant services for our customers and to help industry to continue to meet the environmental and other standards.

Our services are efficient and the best:
No study soil – Terrestrial and marine
No tests Brownfield
o Geotechnical and geoenvironmental advice
o Support Services Construction
o services of the built environment – general
o Environmental Services building – asbestos
o Environmental Services built – microbiology and food quality
O landfill and waste management

With 900 technical employees and 16 offices offering ESGL a unique blend of technical advice, quality laboratory testing and specialist contracting services throughout the United Kingdom. Our mission is provide high levels of environmental service to all our customers. If you want more details on our services visit –

Advance Scaffolding Our Scaffolders


House Cleaning Services In Michigan

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house cleaning services in michigan
I have a question about my 21 month old son.?

There is a program out there here in Michigan called early- program and what it is it helping children 0-36 months delayed development. Now, my question is, they arrive on Monday for help with delayed development of my son. Now, someone told me that I should pay attention to these people (the first on the program), it could turn against me they see something wrong with me and they can write to the child and the services they can follow me. My friend told me that I would have my house spotless clean and the children and so on. Is this true?

Any advocate for children, daycare, doctor, teacher, etc. is mandated by law to report child abuse and neglect. Your house does not need to be impeccable. It must simply be relatively clean, loving and safe for your child. Not everyone is the house the same way. However, if there are feces dog on the floor, this is not acceptable. Just use your common sense at home, and the people of the program will do the same. Do not worry not! Looks like you're a careful mother. This may be the best program in the world of your child. Do not let your fears get the better of you. Good lucky!

TRANE clean effects whole house air cleaning system Award Winning Michigan Trane Dealer.mpg


Cleaning Association Of South Africa

July 18, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

cleaning association of south africa

World Bank Clean Energy Investment

Between 1990 and 2007, the World Bank Group has committed approximately $ 11.4 billion to clean energy. From this, new renewables and energy efficiency have each received $ 3.1 billion, while $ 5.2 billion went to hydropower projects with a capacity exceeding 10 MW per facility.

Renewable energy and efficiency projects Energy continues to perform strongly in the energy portfolio of the WBG and are increasingly integrated in energy loans WBG. For the year 2007 a total of 63 $ 1.43bn supported renewable energy and energy efficiency projects in 32 countries. This represents a scale of 67 percent up commitments for the year 2006. WBG support can be broken down into $ 421 for new renewables, $ 751m for hydro power is greater than 10 MW and 262 million for energy efficiency. Since 2001, the WBG lending for energy own has increased markedly.

The average share of "clean" (eg solar, wind, clean coal) of energy investment total energy (which includes the standard fossil fuels has doubled since 1990-94 to 25 per cent in 2005-07 and reached 40 percent in fiscal 2007 (year Tax World Bank ends June 30).

The World Bank Group (WBG) is composed of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), the Multilateral Investment Guarantee (MIGA) and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). In addition to the ICSID, each plays a role in the energy investment own.

Sub-Saharan Africa received $ 735 million in renewable energy and energy efficiency commitments for 12 projects which accounted for 51 percent of the total energy lending own. The majority of these commitments have been devoted to large hydropower projects, followed by investments in improving energy efficiency. Eleven projects have been developed in South Asia, which accounted $ 183 million in funding devoted mainly to renewable energy. In East Asia and Pacific, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa regions, WBG activities have also focused on renewable energies. However, activities in Europe and Central Asia has focused on improving energy efficiency, which has attracted $ 97 million in commitments.

Bias in Human Genomic Studies


Cleaning Checklist By Room

June 26, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

cleaning checklist by room

House Cleaning Checklist

Juggling friends, family and a career can leave you precious little time for housework. Unsigned cleaning checklists, your home could be very messy very quickly. House Cleaning Services are also lists help you focus what is important and ignore less important things that could take advantage of your precious time.

If you're not on the way create lists of house cleaning, read on to get some interesting tips and tricks.

How to create the home Cleaning List

Spend a little time to gather your thoughts and analyze exactly what needs to be done around your home every week. Good house cleaning checklists should include all pertinent chore while leaving the things that is not important. Initially, you could include all the chores you can think of. Later, you can refine your checklist to create a shortlist.

House cleaning list should also include Things to do on a daily basis. Tasks like doing the dishes and sweeping floors, for example, must be filled every day and simply can not be turned off. However, the house cleaning checklists for different families would be different. Some families feel the need to do a load linen every day, while others can do with a load in a few days or once a week.

Make several House of Checklists cleaning. Make an exhaustive list of all the other days and for weekly tasks. Also do more than two lists contain only the absolute essential tasks be on a daily and weekly basis. The Reason for the decision of the House as cleaning checklists is that you will not the same amount of free time every day. A busy days, you can use the house cleaning that contain only lists the major control tasks. When you have more time on your hands, you can move the entire house cleaning checklists.

How to use your house cleaning list

House cleaning checklist is intended to be displayed in a readily visible location. The refrigerator door is a popular choice, but it could also be next to the computer screen or anywhere else you can find easily. If members of your family help you in your home, you can view copies of the house cleaning checklists in areas where each member is most likely to see him frequently. You can assign tasks to members of your household and use a chart to follow the work.

Constantly evaluate the performance of your family and yourself. It may take several attempts, and you could run through a little house cleaning checklists before find a combination that works to keep your home sparkling. free to change your house cleaning checklists and move items of Feel the daily the weekly list and vice versa.

In addition to the house cleaning list, it is also a good idea to discover the main types of dirt and disorder in your house and their causes. Try to understand how to organize your things and installing a manner that require less cleaning and maintenance. This can be a great way to save time and work long term.

House cleaning list will systematize the work of home storage and make sure you do not skip something important.

Planning Cleaning House

You have the house clean checklist that tell you what to do, but you still need to know how to find time to do what must be done. To start, estimate how long it takes to run your house cleaning checklists on a daily and weekly. Divide the time according to your convenience. Much people find it tedious to do many tasks at a stretch. It is best to divide the time consuming tasks into smaller units that can be completed piece by piece.

Another way to allocate time for your house cleaning checklist, would be based on the number of rooms in your house. For example, you could make the rooms on Monday, the court on Tuesday and so on … Designating one day a week to make an inspection General House and cleaning is also a good idea.

Room Cleaning procedures


Cleaning Services Jobs In Nj

June 17, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

cleaning services jobs in nj
Does anyone know where I can find a job like this?

Im 18 soon to be 19 IVE worked three jobs (in a supermarket for four months, as a summer intern for two years my town soon, and a retail store since August). Im trying to leave my retail employment, and seek other employment. Ill work on my job as an intern in the summer for my city and I want to find another job on the side to replace my detail work. Where can I find a job that does not have to do with customer service, telemarketing, or food. I wouldnt mind landscaping, construction, cleaning or even a little if I could find a better job where I do not have to deal with customers. I dont have any problem dealing with people but I want to work in an office, a job in a sports club, YMCA or a fitness center, development landscaped contrsuction or physical work. Where can I find a job like this in New Jersey?

It is not difficult to find a desk job if you have a degree and have good references. try, you should definitely find. construct a curriculum vitae, and send it to companies. I think if you work in a gym or sports club, you will definitely be dealing with people. there's really nothing in the wings. you might have a job Receptionist something like that, but again, you would relationship with customers. even at office jobs, you may have to face customers, but it would normally only on the phone.

Plumber Morris County NJ Aladdin Plumbing


Restaurant Kitchen Cleaning List

by stain remover expert No Comments »

restaurant kitchen cleaning list

Hood Cleaning New Jersey â € "for the life of commercial kitchen hoods

Hood Cleaning New Jersey can help you with all maintenance and cleaning duties associated with commercial kitchen hoods. If you own a restaurant when you must take care of many things. One thing is the maintenance of your kitchen because it is the most central part of any restaurant. In addition to the quality of food cooked in the kitchen you need to provide as much attention to keep the place clean and hygienic.


You can not ignore the hoods installed in your restaurant. It is very important that you get it cleaned regularly. It's the thing most essential to the maintenance of all commercial kitchens and is best to do it professionally.


It not an easy task to clean commercial kitchen hood and the task is certainly more difficult when the size of the kitchen is very large. Â is recommended for all commercial kitchens that hoods must be cleaned regularly with an interval of 3 to 4 months. Hood Cleaning New Jersey qualified and expert people very capable of performing the task in minimal time so you do not keep restaurant closed.


Regular maintenance ensures longevity hoods. If the hood is not cleaned regularly, they cease to perform the function it is supposed to do. The accumulated fat and other particles in the grease hinder the path of the smoke and aroma liquid out of the kitchen.


The professional cleaning hood New Jersey are qualified and trained in cleaning of all types of kitchen hoods. Without damaging your hood they perform their task with the largest case. They clean all parts of the hood so it remains functional for longer. The cleaning will ensure that the heat of the smoke and the smell of liquid and well exhausted from kitchen.


When you hire a professional hood cleaning services and make sure they accomplish their mission fully. Many service providers are not clean all parts of the hood. The professional cleaning hood New Jersey will ensure that all dirt, oil stains, spices, and other wastes are disposed of and the blocking of the hood is removed. The commission they ask for the provision of services is very reasonable and the service quality is the best they can provide.


It can be very dangerous it can be for the health of your business and your customers, if your hood is not operational for long. If of any accident in the kitchen insurance companies will take your request into consideration if they are convinced that you paid any attention necessary for the maintenance of the kitchen.


Hood cleaning New Jersey has a very long list of clients established. The reason is the prompt service and attention to detail when performing their duties. Customer satisfaction is their policy. They answer your calls as quickly as possible for any regular maintenance or repair services.

Restaurant Checklist: 20 Comprehensive Restaurant Checklists


House Cleaning Services In Detroit

June 9, 2010 by stain remover expert No Comments »

house cleaning services in detroit

Bryce’s Pet Peeves of the Week

“Never trust a person who doesn’t have at least one known vice (e.g., drinking, smoking, swearing).”
- Bryce’s Law


On August 1st of last year, my “Management Visions” (MV) broadcast premiered on the Internet. MV is a free Internet broadcast (aka “Podcast”) that is updated weekly (on Mondays) and is made available in MP3, WMA, and RealPlayer file formats (the RealPlayer is accompanied by graphics). During the broadcast, I discuss subjects related to Information Resource Management IRM), review upcoming events of interest, and review e-mails from listeners. I also describe my “Pet Peeve of the Week” which represents items irritating me at the moment. This has turned into a popular part of the show and, as such, I am including them herein for those of you who missed the broadcast. Hopefully, you will be able to relate to some of these peeves. They are meant to offer some humorous insight into current topics of interest. I hope you will enjoy them. Please note that these are my own opinions and do not necessarily represent the opinions of my company or any other group.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is a Bounty commercial I recently heard on the radio while driving into work the other day. Now as many of you know, Bounty is Proctor & Gamble’s “Quilted Quicker Picker-Upper” paper towels, which I don’t have a problem with as such. We use Bounty in our house. However, the new radio ad described it as having “a new blue-dot quilting” that results in a “high resolution shine.” Frankly, when I heard this I burst out laughing. People in the cars next to me must have thought I had lost my mind. “High resolution shine”? I guess it seems funny to me to see something as mundane as paper towels go “high tech”. Ah, you gotta love Madison Avenue I guess.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is Microsoft’s Windoze operating system. I recently purchased two computers for the office; one a laptop and the other a desktop, both equipped with
the latest version of Windows XP. I had to migrate a lot of data to both machines which offhand, shouldn’t be a big deal. It was. Now, I don’t consider myself a technical guru by any stretch of the imagination but rather I like to consider myself a “power user” who knows his way around a computer.

I’ve installed a lot of operating systems over the years, both beta and production versions. Now, a lot of you know me as an advocate of IBM’s old OS/2 Warp operating system which I still consider the best 32-bit operating system on the block. Nonetheless, my track record of being able to crash a Windows operating system remains intact, for I had no end of problems and found it an extremely frustrating experience. I guess I’ve been spoiled by OS/2 with its object oriented desktop, System Object Model, and preemptive multitasking. I am still at a loss as to why IBM abandoned it.

But in my mind, I can’t imagine why anyone would bother wasting their time inventing computer viruses and worms when you have something like Windoze out there. The only thing that goes uninterrupted is Microsoft’s cash-flow. And no, Virginia, there is no o.s. monopoly out there is there?


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” Is software testing. As I mentioned in my essay, there is a simple “bottom-up” way to test and install systems. However, I am concerned about the way software vendors are testing their products these days, if at all. The industry has fallen into the nasty habit of letting the customers test the products. For example, it is not uncommon anymore for people to get “beta” releases of software products, play with it, and report back to the manufacturer on problems encountered with it. Further, major releases of software products are being shipped with the manufacturers knowing
full-well the products are “buggy.” To pacify customers, they offer free upgrades of the next release (which actually represents the final version).

This approach to software testing is offensive to me.

I used to beta-test software products for vendors, but I no longer have the time nor inclination to do the manufacturer’s work for them anymore. Further, I no longer rush out to buy the latest release of “any” software product; I have been burned too many times by the vendors. As far as I’m concerned, the software vendors really need to clean up their act when it comes to testing. If they really want us to test their products for them,
let us know where we should send the bill.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” Is something a little different: micromanagement. There is a general inclination in the workplace today for managers to try and control “everything”; that nothing happens without the manager’s personal stamp of approval. I have also seen this phenomenon occurring in nonprofit organizations, everything from computer societies, to homeowner associations, garden clubs, little leagues, and, Yes, even Masonic Lodges.

Micromanagement represents a Theory X style of management, which means the organization is basically led by a dictator. Now, in some situations, I can understand the need for this. But for the workplace in general as well as our volunteer organizations, I am at a loss as to why people are doing this. One nasty byproduct of micromanagement is that people become complacent and will only do what they are told and nothing more. They evolve into robots with little loyalty for the institutions they work for.

Having played football on the gridiron years ago, I learned a lot about the concept of teamwork. In any team-type of environment you have several players, but only one coach who is responsible for the game plan. However, trying to control the actions of every player on the field is not only infeasible, it can be counterproductive. I have always found it to be more effective to empower people to make decisions and hold them responsible for their actions. People will not seek responsibility and will only put forth the minimum effort if they are not given some latitude. I always liked Ronald Reagan’s comment on his management style when he said, “Surround yourself with the best people you can find, delegate authority, and don’t interfere as long as the policy you’ve decided upon is being carried out.”

In other words, ease up on the micromanagement, empower your people, give them direction, but don’t tell how to do everything in meticulous detail.

Bottom-line: Do more management and less supervision.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” are University programs that profess to offer a systems curriculum, but in reality, concentrate on nothing more than software development. I am often asked to give overviews of “PRIDE” at universities, normally at the MBA level, and am appalled on how superficially the colleges gloss over the fundamentals of true systems work. Normally, the curriculum offers an introductory course on systems but little else. Instead, they tend to focus on programming languages, networking, and computer trends. Small wonder when I start to talk about “PRIDE”, with its engineering/manufacturing concepts, the students look at me dumbfounded. Terms like “Product Structure,” “Blueprinting,” “Bill of Materials,” MRP, and Production Control are foreign concepts to most systems students. Consequently, our universities are spitting out more software people than we really need. A lot of the customers I deal with are looking for students who can grasp business concepts, know how to interview users, know basic math in order to prepare proposals, understand work flows and work measurement, and write effectively. Frankly, they are screaming for more systems people as opposed to the software candidates churned out by the colleges.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is the death of common courtesy. The other day we had a new FedEx driver make a delivery at our office in Palm Harbor. Since I happened to be by the front door, I opened it and watched him approach. He wore a scowl on his face as if he had been having a bad day. I opened the door, greeted him warmly, shook his hand and asked how his day was going. As I signed for the delivery, the driver looked at me strangely. I asked him if there was a problem. He said, No, it was just that I was the first person that day to be friendly to him and actually ask how he was doing. He said in most companies he visits he’s pretty much taken for granted and treated rudely.

I asked if he thought this was something unique to him as an individual. He said, No, the other drivers often speak of the callousness of their clientele. Come to think of it, I have seen evidence of this elsewhere. For example, when I go to a restaurant, the waiters and waitresses are often taken aback when I kid with them and ask them about their day. Often they look at me like I might have some ulterior motive. But once they get past this, they warm up to me and we have a good working relationship.

This made me stop and think about today’s corporate work place. Have we become so jaded and insensitive as to disregard the interpersonal relationships of our employees, our customers, and our vendors? Have we become so self-centered and aloof that we no longer care how we treat other people?

You know, I learned a long time ago that you can catch a heckova lot more flies with honey than you can with vinegar. A little courtesy and hospitality can go a long way with people. For example, I learned the virtues of a firm handshake some time ago. I don’t just give them some wishy-washy handshake and look through the person. I look them squarely in the eyes, shake their hand and tell them how glad I am to see them. Something as simple as a sincere handshake can work miracles.

We must remember that we don’t conduct our business with inanimate objects, but rather with human beings. Sharpening our people skills is incredibly important to accomplish anything worthwhile in life. Simple common courtesy is a big part of this. Try it. Next time that FedEx or UPS driver comes to
your door or a waitress to your table, look up at them, greet them with a smile and ask them how they’re doing; heck, even often them a handshake. You will be pleasantly surprised with the service you’ll get in return. I’ll tell you this; we have no problems with shipments or deliveries at our office. How about yours?


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is the Press. No, not the general press as distorted as it may be, but rather, the computer trade press. Years ago we had numerous publications you could count on to print an unbiased view of the industry. Publications such as “Infosystems,” “Datamation,” “Computer Decisions,” and the “EDP Analyzer” were able to give balanced reporting while still generating sufficient advertising dollars to sustain
themselves. But something happened along the way in the 1990′s with the propagation of the PC in the workplace. Suddenly, new interests and allegiances were formed and the trade press basically sold its soul to upstart vendors who now command the market. This resulted in jaded reporting and, unfortunately, the credibility of the various publications have diminished. So much so that circulation of the publications are at an all time low. Even “InfoWorld” and “Computerworld” are mere shadows of themselves.

What is missing is a little integrity in the trade press. Instead of trying to invent the next fad, how about some honest reporting on what is actually going on in this industry, both right AND wrong. I’ve got news for you, not everything is as peaches and cream in this industry, regardless of what the press tells you.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” Is the word “workaround” as has been commonly used in the IT field for the last ten years. I tried looking up “workaround” in both Webster’s and The New Heritage Dictionary and, of course, I couldn’t find it. As
we all know, it has come to mean finding a way around a technical problem. It doesn’t mean its a correction to a problem but rather, a way of addressing a problem. But make no mistake about it, “workarounds” ultimately represent errors or bugs in the system and we should refer to them as such. I’m amazed by programmers when they proudly proclaim they’ve found a “workaround” as opposed to admitting they have a problem and don’t know how to fix it.

An IT Department should avoid the term “workaround” as it tends to irritate end-users and causes them to lose faith in the development staff’s ability for solving their problems. A bug is a bug, I don’t care what you call it; don’t try to sugarcoat it, fix it.

As an aside, I was finally able to find “workaround” defined in one dictionary, the Redneck Dictionary. Its typically used to determine the location of employees. For example, “Hey Y’all workaround here?”

I don’t know, I guess I’m getting tired of the sloppy language in this business.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” Is Microsoft, whom I refer to as the Howard Johnsons of the computer business (with apologies to HJ). We call them this because they offer products that are never state of the art, but they are not the worst either; just mediocre and very predictable.

Recently, I read that Microsoft announced its Windows Workflow Foundation (or WWF – which sounds remarkably like the World Wrestling Federation). Nonetheless, WWF is a Windows technology that will enable developers to stitch together MS Office applications and in-house developed software into workflow applications. Here again is another example of “bottom-up” system design. Instead of first determining requirements and designing the overall system architecture, they are proposing a means to assemble programs bottom-up. Vintage Microsoft. Frankly, I think they should stick to wrestling.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” Is corporate dress codes. Back in the 1970′s it was generally expected that a man wear a suit and tie to work and women dressed well. During the 1980′s this code was relaxed and you would see “dress down” days on Fridays. By the 1990′s suits and ties had been replaced by golf shirts and slacks. But now, in 2005, we see t-shirts, blue jeans and shorts in the workplace.

Ben Stein recently wrote an interesting piece in the New York Times complaining about the slovenly appearance of corporate America which I have to agree with. I think we have gone too far. Dress codes have an impact on the corporate culture of any business. If we dress sharp, we tend to think smart. If we dress sloppy, we tend to be lazy in our work habits. Show me a workplace without a dress code and I’ll show you a pigsty that produces questionable results. I know we like to promote
rugged individualism in this country, but there is nothing wrong with a little uniformity and teamwork either.

When we started our company in the early 1970′s, our dress code was “business casual” except when we knew customers were coming into the office where we were then expected to spruce up and dress professionally. Over time, we abandoned business casual and mandated at least a shirt and tie for men and proper attire for women. This had a positive effect, particularly on our IT staff. What I found interesting though was while we, as a small business, were learning to “dress up”, corporate America began to “dress down.”

Ben Stein was right in criticizing today’s corporate dress codes. After all, who would you rather do business with, someone who looks like a bum or someone dressed for success and has their act together? I think the answer is rather obvious.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is cell phones. As you will remember, cell phones first became popular with doctors and other members of the medical community who rightly saw it as a vital link between their patients and themselves. Next came business people who needed mobility to talk with their office and clients. This included realtors, salesmen and service people. But then it landed in the hands of housewives and children under the clever ruse that it was a great way to get in touch with our loved ones in the event of an emergency. And this is when all hell broke loose. Now, it seems everyone has one, not only on their hips or in their ears, but in their cars, on their motorcycles. I’ve even seen kids talking on them while skateboarding, riding bicycles, and, Yes, even tricycles. Its now more of an annoying habit than a working tool or status symbol.

What I find amusing is how it has affected our social skills. Its now common to find people walking alone on a street or in a store seemingly talking to themselves. Maybe they are and the cell phone is nothing but a clever ruse. But what disturbs me more than anything is how people jabber away on the phone while they’re in traffic. Now you know darn well not everyone has something vital to communicate all of the time. It is now common to see 16 year old girls talking to their boyfriends and making plans for the weekend; moms chatting with their girlfriends, guys talking with their buds, and so on. We’re doing everything but paying attention to the road. Have we become so bored with our lives that we find it necessary to talk to someone just to kill time while in traffic? I guess so.

In 1967, James Coburn starred in a movie called “The President’s Analyst” which has become a cult classic. If you haven’t seen the picture, Coburn uncovers a plot by the telephone company to implant a chip into everyone’s head whereby everyone can send and receive telephone calls (I’d love to see how they would handle faxes). Nonetheless the movie is very prophetic in terms of where cell phones are heading. I’m just worried about the social implications.

Please do me one small favor though, if you find it absolutely necessary to talk to someone on the phone while you’re driving around, please pull off to the side of the road and talk to the person like a rational human being. And Yes, I am very much in favor of legislation regulating the use of cell phones.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is “Bloatware.” Ever notice when you get a new computer how fast it runs, Yet, over time it starts to slow to a crawl. This is primarily attributed to
what is called “bloatware” in the industry. Years ago, programmers were very careful in how they wrote software. The code was very tight and there was concern over efficient use of machine resources. But as disk space, memory, and processor capabilities grew, programmers became less and less concerned with machine efficiency. I remember just a few years ago I was able to install IBM’s OS/2 operating system on a PC with 50mb of disk space, and it ran just fine with plenty of room to spare on my hard drive. But the times have changed; hardware improvements and the Internet have seen to that. But the programming is getting sloppier and sloppier. If you have tried to install a word processor or a graphics package lately you know what I mean.

I can’t help feeling this is all a grand scheme to build-in obsolescence into our computers. Slowing down software means purchasing additional hardware. Understand this, a computer is considered an antique when it reaches three years old. We would probably hold onto our computers longer if we didn’t have so much bloatware running on them. But I guess that wouldn’t be good for the economy.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is the word “Guestimate.” I have been involved in the IRM field for a long time now and it has always bugged me how people try to invent new words in an attempt to appear cute and clever. One such word is “Guestimate” which tries to imply that performing an estimate is simply a guess, to which I have to give a big DUH. Estimating is fundamentally an effort at projecting the future. Like all projections, the more facts and information available, the better the estimate will be, but rarely is it ever perfect. There is a natural human tendency to avoid making estimates because estimates are expressions of commitments, and people tend to shy away from commitments and accountability, particularly when they are not sure of the facts. Look, lets keep it simple, an estimate is an estimate and a guess is a guess, let’s not create any more 3rd grade words such as “guestimate.”

Another word that bothers me is “reiterate” and you hear it just about everywhere these days. Think about it; what does it mean? The word Iterate refers to the repetition of something. So what do we mean when we say RE-iterate? An infinite loop? The language in the IT industry is sloppy enough without us having to add new words to our vocabulary. But I guestimate I am reiterating myself.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is entitled, “Why do we make things more complicated than they really are?” Over the last 30 years I have been fortunate to travel the world, visit with
many corporate customers, and hobnob with gurus in the field. One thing I’ve always found fascinating is how the IT industry tends to make things more complicated than they really are. For example, building systems and software is really not as complicated as they appear to be. Systems consist of business processes, procedures and programs. We also have inputs for collecting data, outputs for transmitting information, files for storing data, records, and data elements. Period. It has always been this way and it will always be this way. But the IT Industry seems to reinvent itself every five years or so. We now like to talk about apps, agile programming, data mining, SOA, business rules, meta data, and things that go bump in the night. The only rationale I can give for changing the vocabulary so often is that it must sell a lot of books and magazines. Either that or people use it to make themselves look smarter than they really are. The sad part is that this new vernacular is creeping into college studies and we then have to spend the next several years debriefing the kids. I don’t know, as I get older, I find the better things in life are the simple things. I guess I’m surprised that more people don’t challenge needless complexity.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is entitled “Snowbirds.” November marks the beginning of the snowbird migration. This is where northerners, predominantly retirees, begin to make their annual trek down here to Florida. Sure, their money is nice for our economy but we have to contend with some God-awful drivers. There are New Yorkers in SUV’s who think they own the road, people from Ontario who believe they are always driving in a school zone, and others from the midwest who are just plain lost. It sure would be nice if we had a national driving standard. It would make it a heckova lot easier and safer down here for all of us if we did.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is the Great American Smokeout sponsored by the American Cancer Society last Thursday, November 17th. As many of you know I enjoy a good cigar. I never acquired a taste for cigarettes but I definitely enjoy a good cigar when I’m going about my business. I don’t bother anyone with it. Its just something I do on my own time. Yes, I am aware of the dangers of smoking, as I am sure all smokers are. And, No, I do not consider myself a smoking advocate. Having said all this, let me just say to all the Anti-smokers out there: Will you please get off our backs! Being a smoker doesn’t mean we’re demons or some misguided fools, but we sure get characterized this way. The Anti-Smokers are making it harder and harder to find a venue for us to enjoy our pleasure, everything from airplanes and airports, to restaurants and bars, the workplace, even cars. Next, will be our homes where I definitely draw a line and tell them to mind their own business. I will continue to enjoy my cigar regardless of the browbeating I may take from the Anti-Smoking lobby. I don’t think they realize that as they become more obnoxious in their campaign, it stiffens my resolve to enjoy a good smoke.

I will also remind you of one of my more memorable Bryce’s Laws that says, “Never trust a person who doesn’t have at least one known vice (e.g., drinking, smoking, swearing).” I have always found that such a lily white person always has a dark side or something they are trying to hide. As for me, I’ll continue to enjoy my cigars and keep my vices aboveboard.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is “Micromanagement.” Today we live in a Theory X world where managers like to dictate the specifics of any given task which is commonly referred to as “micromanagement.” Employees are told what to do and when to do it, without any interest in their input. Such an approach is basically saying to the worker, “Look, you’re not smart enough to do this right so I’m going to tell you how to do it.” Consequently, micromanagement tends to irritate and alienate people. More recently, I’ve noticed this same phenomenon occurring in nonprofit volunteer organizations, such as homeowner associations, clubs, school organizations, sports associations, and even church groups. The people that run these groups may have the best intentions, but rarely do they know how to actually manage. Sadly, some people get involved with such organizations to satisfy a petty power trip they are on. They have little regard for organization and adherence to policies and rules. Instead, they try to micromanage everything. People, particularly volunteers, have a natural aversion to micromanagement and quickly lose interest in their work.

Instead, I recommend an approach where you delegate responsibility and hold people accountable for their actions. I refer to this as managing from the “bottom-up” as opposed to
“top-down.” By treating workers like responsible adults, there is a tendency to accept responsibility and see a task through to its successful completion. As President Ronald Reagan said, “Surround yourself with the best people you can find, delegate authority, and don’t interfere as long as the policy you’ve decided upon is being carried out.”

Basically, Reagan said, “Don’t micromanage; empower your staff and get out of the way.”


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is “Reruns.” Last week it was announced that the Rolling Stones were going to perform the half-time show for the 40th Super Bowl next February in Detroit. I found this announcement somewhat amusing in that Paul McCartney of the Beatles provided the half-time entertainment in the last Super Bowl. Its not that I have anything against these aging rockers, as I have been a big Beatles and Stones fan for the last 40 years, I’m just wondering where the new talent is or if there really is any talent to replace my generation’s music. We hear a lot about Rap, Hip-Hop, and Country, but who are the musicians who truly define this generation? Frankly, they’re not our there. Oh, I’m not suggesting the talent doesn’t exist, for I believe it does, but it is being tightly controlled by marketers who engineer every note being recorded today.

In the old days, it was not uncommon for artists to write their own music, sing their own songs, and play their own instruments. This is hardly the case any more. Instead of developing a generation of craftsmen like the Beatles and the Stones, the current wave of musicians are simply marketing “flash in the pans” that have no staying power. The Beatles and the Stones are great, but ultimately their music represents reruns which is indicative of the artistic void that has been created by the media moguls. Take Hollywood for example; How many times are we going to remake King Kong, the Pink Panther and just about every TV show from the 1960′s? Instead of computer generated graphics, how about some creative plots and well written scripts? I can’t believe we’ve run out of ideas in Hollywood, so much so that they find it necessary to reproduce old stories. Does the younger generation really lack any form of creativity? I seriously doubt it. They’re just not being allowed to express it and, instead, we have to sit through reruns. I’m becoming increasingly concerned what effect this stagnation in our culture will ultimately have on us. To me, it represents complacency and signals a decline in our ability to strive to achieve. It also represents another indication of the “micromanagement” going on in the corporate world. Consider this, if the Beatles and Stones were to emerge in today’s world, they probably wouldn’t be allowed to practice their craft.

Oh well, I guess I’ll go home, turn on the television and listen to Led Zepplin sell Cadillacs.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is “Service” (the lack thereof). Recently I stopped by a new cigar shop to buy some cigars. I went into their humidor and checked their inventory. There were several custom-rolled cigars made on the premises as well as the usual commercial cigars from the Dominican Republic and the Honduras. I happened to find my favorite (which is a Hoyo de Monterey, Sultan/Maduro) and took a dozen of them up to the cashier for purchase. Ahead of me in line was a gentleman also purchasing a dozen cigars all of the same kind. I noticed the cashier was painfully slow in scanning and recording each cigar. Next to her at the counter was the shop owner who was preoccupied reading a magazine. There were other customers also in the shop, all of which were of no concern to the cashier or owner.

What should have been a simple transaction for the guy in front of me took at least ten minutes. Fortunately, I was in no hurry, but I was starting to become impatient nonetheless over a simple purchase. When she finally finished the transaction, the cashier greeted me, took my cigars and began the laborious task of scanning and recording my order (again, a simple transaction turned into a lengthy task). As she processed the last cigar, I pulled out my wallet and presented her with my credit card. She looked at it and said, “Oh, I’m sorry our credit card machine is down right now, do you have cash?”

Of course, I didn’t and suddenly I realized that after waiting twenty minutes to make a simple purchase I had come to loggerheads with her over the purchase.

I said, “Is there nothing that can be done?”

“No sir, we need cash.”

Interestingly, the shop owner who had been listening to our banter simply kept flipping through his magazine.

I asked, “Can’t you take an imprint of my card and process it later when the machine is back up?”

“Oh, no sir, we can’t do that.”

“In other words, instead of trying to find a way to make this sale happen, you’re telling me that I just wasted twenty minutes of my time in your store.”

She looked at me dumbfounded and the owner turned another page in his magazine.

I told them this was the last time I would frequent their establishment and stormed out without any cigars. Frankly, I don’t think they cared one bit.

I’m sure we have all seen similar situations where there is a lack of decent service, whether it be in a retail shop, restaurant, automotive repair, in the corporate world, or wherever. People are becoming less and less sensitive to customer service. Its like they come down with a bad case of the stupids when dealing with customers.

As I was growing up, I was always taught that the customer was king; that if you took care of the customer they would return the favor with repeat business and provide sparkling references of your business to others. But evidently, the times are changing and teaching good customer service is becoming a rarity. For those of you who really don’t care about the customer, I would
remind you that everything begins with a sale and the customer should never have to wait to pay the bill. Instead of finding ways not to make a sale, here’s an idea; why not try to find ways to make it happen. But I guess that would require a little personal initiative which is something that is also sorely lacking these days.


My “Pet Peeve of the Week” is entitled “Holiday Madness.” December is the month where we celebrate a lot of things:

  • Christians celebrate the birth of Jesus, although the exact date of His birth is questionable.
  • The Jews celebrate Chanukah which represents a lengthy battle where the Syrians were driven out of Israel.
  • Kwanzaa has been around since 1966, and unlike Christmas and Chanukah that are religious in nature, Kwanzaa celebrates African culture.
  • We then celebrate the end of one year, and the birth of a new one.

There is so much to celebrate during December that I always felt sorry for those people who were born during this month and are typically gypped out of the parties and presents they deserve.

Comedian Lewis Black recently commented on the encroachment of Christmas on other holidays, such as Thanksgiving and Halloween, that the retailers won’t be happy until the Christmas season encompasses Labor Day and the 4th of July. Lewis has a point. It is simple economics that drives this year-end holiday frenzy and little else. You don’t really believe those people fighting in WalMart over a DVD player, digital camera, or iPod are really thinking about “peace on earth, good will towards man” do you? Hardly. The holidays bring out both the best and worst in all of us, which is a shame as this is not what they were intended for. It is supposed to be a time of reflection and renewal, not traffic jams and chaos in the shopping aisles. Ever wonder what these year-end holidays would be like if the exchange of gifts were removed from the formula? They would probably be as subdued and respectful as Veteran’s Day or Memorial Day. But this will never happen as the retailers and the media holds us in their tight grip. We’ll now spend the next 90-120 days paying everything off. I’ll just be happy when the tinsel comes down, the house is cleaned up, the relatives go home, and everything returns to normal. At least until April 16th which is Easter Sunday and the sales cycle starts all over again.

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